- Rabbi Avraham Gordimer
One of the most unusual aspects of the Yovel (Jubilee) year is the return of land to its original owners. This reversion of (most) real estate back to its ancestral owners at Yovel was explained in an earlier d’var Torah as reflective of Yovel’s theme of Teshuva. The shofar is blown on Yom Kippur during Yovel, every Eved Ivri (Hebrew servant) is liberated, and land is restored to its original proprietors, representing the return (“teshuva“) of life to the way that Hashem had originally ordained and established it.
It is thus quite striking that when presenting the prohibition to circumvent Yovel by selling land permanently, the Torah states, “And the land shall not be sold permanently, for the land is Mine…” (Vayikra 25:23) If Hashem’s intent here is to imbue in people a recognition of His mastery over the land and the entire universe, how does reversion of the land to its original owners accomplish this? The Shemitah and Yovel prohibitions to work the land certainly express an acknowledgment of Hashem's ownership and authority over it, but how does reversion of land to its original owners convey this message? It would seem that reversion of land to its original owners could indicate the opposite – that the original owners are indeed the master proprietors, who deserve their land back – and thereby not send the foundational message that the land is Hashem’s. What is the true meaning of reversion of land to its original owners? And how does this all fit into Yovel’s theme of Teshuva?
The notion of ancestral lands in Eretz Yisroel is not merely an issue of history or land rights. It has a very deep spiritual message, for the system of apportioning land to the Shevatim (Tribes) was initiated by Moshe Rabbeinu and Elazar Ha-Kohen, as per a Divine command, and the specific territories were later assigned and distributed by Yehoshua and Elazar to each Shevet. The size of each tract of land for every family was likewise determined by Divine decree. All ancestral land apportionment was literally under the direction of Moshe, Elazar and Yehoshua.
Thus, anyone with ancestral land in Eretz Yisroel knew that his land was allocated to his forebears as part of the original conquest and division of land under Yehoshua’s leadership, as part of a Divine command and land apportionment formula going back to Moshe and Elazar. If we had such land, knowing our connection to its spectacular and striking history, we would say “WOW!!!” and probably be overcome with the same type of holy sensation that one feels when visiting Me’aras Ha-Machpelah (the Tomb of the Patriarchs) or Kever Rochel (Rachel’s Tomb), for these properties were acquired by our ancestors as part of the Divine plan, and their designation and function take us back directly to our great forebears and leaders.
One’s relationship with land that was apportioned to his family at the time of Yehoshua’s conquest of Eretz Yisroel, by use of a formula dictated to Moshe by Hashem Himself, is a source of incredible inspiration. It reconnects the proprietor with holy personalities of old and ultimately with Hashem. It signals Teshuva – a return to one’s Torah roots.
This scenario also impacts society at large, as people witness and are spiritually stimulated by the notion of lands apportioned years ago by Hashem's decree reverting back, in compliance with His original scheme.
We sometimes become nostalgic, fondly recalling the people, places and events of our youth. While this can be a good and special experience, there is another type of nostalgia – a very sacred version of it – through which we are truly inspired by unique and living connections to a holy past, leading us ultimately to bond with Hashem and His Torah. It is this sacred, living nostalgia, that the reversion of lands to their ancestral proprietors represents. It propels one to Teshuva, and it is what Yovel is all about.